The new EQS: Electric powertrain[1]

OverviewThe 15 biggest innovations”The EQS is a milestone on the way to CO2-neutrality”Interesting facts & figures”Linking intelligence and emotion”Interesting facts & figuresThe transformers: thinking of tomorrow todayInnovative aesthetics in unmistakable purpose designEmbarking on the new era of purpose designThe EQS: Experience for all the sensesHere comes the new world record holderGentleperson of the new schoolNo cable reaches this farThe whispering class for the earsPowerful cell chemistry meets intelligent softwareFurther reducing the carbon footprint with green powerAlways connectedBecause the shortest route is not always the fastestActivating new functions after buying a new carConsistent digitisation and borrowings from interior design”The MBUX Hyperscreen is both the brain and nervous system of the car”Zero-layer design: the most important thing is now only one click awayWelcome to the big in-car showBetween comfortable tranquillity and an interactive, sensuous sound experienceQuick learner thanks to AIHEPA filter against airborne pollutantsAcoustic oases with summer rain, seagull sounds and rustling leavesHe who calls for silenceEfficient use of waste heat from the powertrainVirtual surround sound and extensive sound personalisationEmotive animations, colour feedback and additional visual warningsGreat suspension and ride comfort paired with high driving dynamicsThe rear wheels also steer as standardHigh-resolution light projection with innovative assistance functionsIntelligent support while drivingEasy entry into confined parking spaces and narrow entrancesUse your time in the car more effectively and conveniently have it park and unparkAccident protection is not a question of the powertrain concept

Nonstop from Munich to Berlin or from Oslo to Stockholm: with an operating range of up to 770 kilometres (WLTP) and an output of up to 385 kW, the powertrain of the EQS also meets every expectation of a progressive saloon in the S-Class segment. All EQS models have an electric powertrain (eATS) at the rear axle, while the versions with 4MATIC also have an eATS at the front axle. In the 4MATIC models, the Torque Shift function ensures intelligent, continuously variable distribution of drive torque between the rear and front electric motors and thus the use of the most efficient eATS in each case. The modular powertrain concept ensures high overall performance and long range.

The modular drive concept allows a wide range of maximum total drive powers from 245 to 385 kW. A performance version with up to 560 kW is being planned. Depending on the size of the battery and the vehicle equipment and configuration, WLTP ranges of up to 770 kilometres are possible.

The electric motors on the front and rear axles are permanently excited synchronous motors (PSM). With the PSM, the rotor of the AC motor is fitted with permanent magnets and therefore does not need to be supplied with power. The magnets – and thus the rotor – follow the rotating alternating current field in the winding of the stator. In the EQS, Mercedes-Benz uses a so-called pull-in winding for a particularly strong magnetic field. The engine is said to be synchronous, because the rotor turns at the same rate as the magnetic field of the stator. The frequency is adjusted in the power electronics convertors to the speed requirements of the driver. The advantages of this design include high power density, high efficiency and high power constancy. The motor on the rear axle is particularly powerful due to its six-phase design: It has two windings with three phases each.

Cooling: sophisticated thermal concept for high load capacity
Consistently high performance and multiple accelerations without a drop in power characterise the drive philosophy of the EQS. This includes a sophisticated thermal concept with some special features. A so-called water lance in the shaft of the rotor cools it from the inside. Other cooling elements in the cooling circuit are fins on the stator, a needle-shaped pin-fin structure on the inverter and a transmission oil cooler. This also brings more efficiency during cold driving, because the heat exchanger then serves to heat the transmission oil and thus reduces friction in the transmission.

Intelligent recuperation: one-pedal driving to a standstill
The EQS offers several variants of energy recovery: In this process, the high-voltage battery is charged by converting the mechanical rotary motion into electrical energy during push or braking operation. The driver can manually select the deceleration in three stages (D+, D, D-) and the coast function via shift paddles behind the steering wheel. Additionally, there is DAuto. In this programm, up to 5 m/s² deceleration is achieved, 3 m/s² of which is due to recuperation (2 m/s² via the wheel brakes). The recuperation power of the all-wheel drive versions is up to 290 kW[2], and for rear-wheel drive vehicles, traction (and thus driving stability) is the limiting factor.

ECO Assist also offers situation-optimised energy recovery - deceleration is so strong or weak that it ultimately results in the most efficient driving style. Recuperative deceleration is also used as far as possible approaching detected vehicles ahead until they come to a standstill, for example at traffic lights. The driver does not need to press the brake pedal for this - pure one-pedal driving.

4MATIC models: infinitely variable distribution of the drive torques
In the models with 4MATIC, the Torque Shift function intelligently and continuously distributes the drive torques between the front and rear axles. It thus ensures the use of the most efficient eATS in each case, as these can be regulated independently of each other. The required drive torque at the wheels is checked 10,000 times per minute and set if necessary: The reaction is thus much faster than would ever be possible with a mechanical all-wheel drive.

Extensive testing: special test benches at Mercedes-Benz
On its way to series production, the EQS covered around five million test kilometres, including at the Test and Technology Centre (PTZ) in Immendingen. The systematic validation of the overall vehicle serves to guarantee the high quality standards and is one of the extensive measures in the development process of every Mercedes-Benz model series. Stations included tough winter tests in Scandinavia, chassis and powertrain tests on proving grounds, public roads and on the high-speed test track in Nardò, as well as integrated complete vehicle heat testing in Southern Europe and South Africa. The EQS was also on the road for test drives in China, Japan, Dubai and the USA.

In the process, it completed the same demanding testing programme as any other vehicle that can proudly wear a star. In addition, a number of tests were carried out specifically for electric cars, covering important development priorities such as range, charging and efficiency. Of course, special attention was paid to the e-drive and the battery.

In addition, there were several million test kilometres on a total of more than two dozen test benches in Stuttgart-Untertürkheim and at the development site in Nabern. Testing takes place on pure eATS test benches, where the current comes from a special direct current source, a so-called battery simulation, and on eDrive test benches: Here, the testing also includes the battery and the complete charging components of the vehicle. The track profile/test bench profile was modified compared to the combustion engines, for example to take into account the torque load on the transmissions in both directions - a special load case determined by the high recuperation power. In addition, there is the special hot/cold testing of the power electronics.

[1] Technical information on the EQS concerning mileage, range, output, torque, recuperation and performance in this publication is provisional, and was calculated internally in accordance with the applicable certification method. Confirmed TÜV figures, EC type approval and conformity certification with official figures are not yet available. Differences between the stated figures and the official figures are possible.

[2] This value refers to the electrical power fed into the electric battery due to recuperation. It can be achieved under optimal environmental conditions, depending on, among other things charge status and temperature. Deviations are possible.