Glossary: Key technical terms

OverviewPlans for more than ten different all-electric vehicles by 2022: All systems are goInterview with Ola Källenius: "At least one electrified alternative in every model series"Road #1: Electromobility: Electric pioneer Mercedes-Benz working hard to expand scope of zero CO2 mobilityUrban mobility of the future: smart planning to go all-electricUnder the microscope: Mercedes-Benz EQA show car: EQ concept in the compact classUnder the microscope: Mercedes-Benz GLC-F CELL: World's first electric vehicle with fuel-cell/battery powertrain Under the microscope: Battery technology: Further technological leaps expectedRoad #2: Hybrid vehicles: One of the broadest ranges of plug-in hybrid vehiclesUnder the microscope: Mercedes-Benz S 560 e: More power, more rangeUnder the microscope: Mercedes-AMG Project ONE: Formula One technology for the roadUnder the microscope: ECO Assist: Networked drive strategy for intelligent efficiencyRoad #3: Diesel engines, petrol engines, ISG and RSG, 48 V on-board electrical systemUnder the microscope: New petrol engines: Trendsetting technology and efficiencyUnder the microscope: New family of premium diesel engines: More economical and powerful, more lightweight and compactRoad #4: e-Mobility services: The mobility of the future will be more flexible and more connectedUnder the microscope: network of expertise: Bundling expertise and securing know-howUnder the microscope: Battery production: Daimler to build global production compound for batteriesUnder the microscope: charging technologies: Charging made easierUnder the microscope: Stationary energy storage units: From car to gridMercedes-Benz Vans: The future of inner-city transport is electricMercedes-Benz Commercial Vehicles and Buses: Electric all the wayHeritage: Sights always set on alternativesGlossary: Key technical terms

48 V electrical system: Offers four times the power of its 12 V predecessor system at identical currents and makes fuel savings possible. The 48 V low-voltage system does not require the additional safety architecture of a high-voltage network.

Fuel cell: Special galvanic cell that generates electricity from the chemical reaction between hydrogen and oxygen. A fuel cell consists of electrodes separated by a membrane or electrolyte (ion conductor).

CCS standard (Combined Charging System): European charging standard for electric and hybrid vehicles, described in part 3 of the IEC 62196 (DIN EN 62196). The CCS standard enables public charging at much higher capacity than today.

Efficiency label: Since December 2011, the Energy Consumption Labelling Directive for passenger cars (Pkw-EnVKV) has required every new car to carry such a label. The CO2 efficiency classes are assigned depending on the vehicle weight. To this end, the legislators have defined a reference value of the CO2 emissions for each vehicle weight. The heavier the car, the higher the reference value.

Determining the efficiency class requires comparing the actual CO2 emissions with the reference value. If the CO2 emissions exactly match the reference value, the car is categorised as belonging to efficiency class E. The efficiency classes A+ to D are awarded to vehicles with CO2 emissions that are lower than the reference value. Vehicles with CO2 emissions that are clearly higher than the reference value are assigned efficiency class F or G. 

Integrated Starter-Generator (ISG): The functions of starter and alternator are combined in one electric machine. Unlike a àBSA, such a starter-alternator is not driven by a belt, but directly by the crankshaft. It is positioned between engine and transmission. Also, an ISG enables hybrid functions, such as boost, energy recovery and start/stop.

Intelligent powertrain management: The intelligent operating strategy for hybrid vehicles anticipates the course of the road and the traffic situation for maximum efficiency. This includes radar-based energy recovery, an anticipatory shifting and operating strategy, a route-based operating strategy and ECO Assist.

Lithium-ion battery: Electrochemical, rechargeable voltage supply based on lithium. The advantages of lithium-ion batteries are their high energy density at a relatively low weight, their immunity to the so-called memory effect, and the low self-discharge.

Lithium-sulphur battery: Potential next technology replacing lithium-ion batteries that uses sulphur as the cathode material.

Multi-way exhaust gas recirculation (EGR): A combination of low-pressure EGR (the exhaust gas is extracted downstream of the exhaust gas aftertreatment and is introduced upstream of the turbocharger) and high-pressure EGR (the exhaust gas is extracted upstream of the turbine of the turbocharger and the exhaust gas aftertreatment; it is introduced downstream of the intercooler and the throttle valve). By adding exhaust gases, the oxygen concentration of the mixture is reduced. Due to the lower oxygen concentration, less fuel is injected to combust it all completely. The calorific value or energy content of the mixture is reduced and consequently also the reaction rate and the combustion temperature - this reduces the formation of nitrogen oxide. Cooling the recirculated exhaust gas amplifies this effect. At all operating points, this reduces the formation of both nitrogen oxides and particulates even before the exhaust gas undergoes treatment.

NANOSLIDE®: Innovative and economical process for reducing fuel consumption and CO2 emissions in an internal combustion engine. An extremely thin, low-friction coating is applied to the inner surfaces of the cylinders in an aluminium engine block. As up to 25 percent of the energy in fuel is used to overcome in-engine friction at part load, fuel savings of several percent are achievable with NANOSLIDE®.

9G-TRONIC plug-in hybrid transmission: The third-generation hybrid transmission evolved on the basis of the 9G-TRONIC PLUS automatic transmission. The torque converter, clutch and electric motor are housed in the innovative hybrid drive unit. The remarkably compact design was achieved by integrating and connecting the separating clutch, torsional vibration damper and torque converter lock-up clutch within the rotor of the electric motor.

Plug-in hybrid: A hybrid vehicle with a battery that can be recharged externally from an electrical power supply.

Plug-in fuel cell powertrain: Innovative powertrain concept of the GLC F-CELL combining the advantages of both zero-emission technologies. Due to its intelligent operating strategy for using the two energy sources, it always adapts optimally to the particular operating situation. At the same time, the combination accounts for the gradual expansion of the hydrogen filling station infrastructure in an ideal manner.

RDE ("Real Driving Emissions"): An emissions test that measures pollutants actually on the road and that will be gradually introduced over the next few years alongside the à WLTP. By 1 September 2018, all newly registered vehicles with either a diesel engine or a direct-injection petrol engine will need to meet the particulate concentration limits on the road, subject to a conformity factor. The RDE test procedures will be conducted using portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS): the PEMS unit, which is connected to the vehicle's exhaust system, measures nitrogen oxide and carbon monoxide emissions as well as particulate numbers and records a whole host of engine, vehicle and environmental parameters over a pre-defined route. The constant comparison with GPS data ensures that a direct correlation can be made between the driving situation and the emissions performance.

Energy recovery: The alternator converts kinetic energy into electrical energy, for example during braking or on overrun. The recovered energy is stored in the battery and is available for future acceleration.

Belt-driven starter-alternator (BSA): A combination of starter and alternator, which, like a conventional alternator, is connected to the crankshaft by a belt drive.

Offset: Offset between the longitudinal axis of the crankshaft and the centre axis of the cylinders. This offset has two advantages: the piston lateral force at the instant of ignition is reduced and the crankcase can be of more compact design.


Second-life battery storage system: Stationary energy storage systems made of used batteries from electric and hybrid cars. This efficient dual use improves the Life Cycle Assessment LCA and the life-cycle costs of electromobility.

Stack: to achieve higher voltages, several fuel cells are connected in series to create a stack.

Stepped-bowl combustion process: A characteristic feature of the pistons of a direct-injection diesel engine is a recess (bowl) in the piston crown in which the injected fuel is swirled and mixed with air. If the bowl is stepped (instead of having the conventional omega shape), this has a number of advantages, such as excellent air utilisation with low particulate emissions and higher efficiency thanks to a higher burning rate. The changed flow conditions in the combustion chamber result in reduced heat loss across the cylinder wall as well as in a more uniform temperature distribution at the cylinder head and reduced loading on the highly stressed valve lands. The overall result is reduced wall heat loss, which likewise contributes to increased efficiency.

Wallbox charging station: Personal charging station for home or place of work. The wallbox charging station in Mercedes-Benz design impresses with an AC charging capacity of up to 22 kW (depending on vehicle), and can be installed indoors or outdoors. Various versions of the Mercedes-Benz Wallbox are available to purchase from Mercedes-Benz dealers.

WLTP ("Worldwide Harmonised Light Vehicles Test Procedure"): A new and more realistic driving cycle that will be introduced on an individual vehicle basis between now and autumn 2018, at which point it will replace the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). The new WLTP test procedure aims to provide a closer representation of "real world" conditions. It will include, for example, more realistic dynamic handling and outside temperatures, testing over a longer distance, fewer stops and more braking and accelerating.

 

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